Hay is preserved by drying: ideally, the residual moisture is lowered to 15% within 30 hours and after about 6 weeks germ rests, the preservation is complete and the good is stable in storage. Each injection of moisture reactivates the germs. This can be done due to storage, but also by humidification during vaporization. From this the germs have to get so much temperature that they are killed. A laboratory test gives information about this, but it can say NOTHING about the allergenic potential. Moisture binds and initiates swelling processes, the surfaces are enlarged, denaturation of the protein components increases adhesion to the stem surfaces. The pathogenic germs are derived from the bronchial system. A watering can or the rain barrel also relieves the load. Living germs pass through the stomach and are acidified there, but not necessarily killed. This causes unfavorable strain on the digestive tract. We have controlled 103°, 111°C, 122°C and 133°C steam inlet temperature and checked the property for chewing requirements, as feeding times of 40 minutes/kilogram of hay must not be reduced.
The temperature resistance of clostridian spores, mesophilic and thermophilic earth spores above 120°C is in a temperature range that cannot be controlled without softening the material.
From this we also rely on the enthalpy energy contained in the vapour, which is discharged on the pathogenic germs when the vapour condenses. To this end, we increase the inlet temperature to average, shorten runtimes to a minimum and achieve maximum effect on allergenic dusts with only minimal thermal change in the feed.
The common hay steamers that are on the market only partially meet our expectations of optimal processing of the basic forage.
The fundamental objective is to try to change the structure of the allergy-triggering protein components through denaturation through the action of the enthalpy energy of the steam in conjunction with a temperature of well over 90 ° C on the stalk surfaces * (note the T-delta chamber and hay surface temperature) and the pathogenic dusts attached to it to prevent germination and to initiate swelling processes through moisture, which binds dusts in order to divert them from the bronchial system.
However, it is not allowed to “softly cook” raw fiber, for example, because this reduced chewing activity and thus the feeling of satiety, saliva production and feeding times, the peristalsis of the intestine would be reduced and an overacidification of the stomach favors. Extensive denaturation processes would also impair protein quality.
Thus, the running time should be reduced to a minimum in order to achieve maximum effect on the adhesions with only minimal thermal change in the ingredients. This can only be achieved with a steam inlet temperature that is well above 100 ° C. The prerequisite for this are materials that can withstand high temperatures and a steam feed with the corresponding performance characteristics. The commercially available devices do not necessarily meet these requirements, so we decided to bring this combination onto the market:
a. Steam generator:
Wallpaper removers are questionable equipment for a stable, even if they may well fulfil their purpose there. Designed for use indoors in designs that are not approved for damp rooms, whose steam hoses are mechanically weak, have to be permanently filled and elaborately decalcified with acid and ultimately provide a steam temperature of 100°C. Depending on the power of the heating coils, these devices need a very long time to bring the hay to a temperature of >95°C in the chamber of 600l. Acceleration can be achieved with two-chamber devices, whose tank contents are, however, only slightly heated and can be regarded as spore cannons if suspended matter enters the barn i. V. m. Braunstein.
The requirements of our prototypes were therefore:
Increased steam temperature with short running times, direct water connection and user-friendly descaling without auxiliaries*.
*For descaling, brass closures are provided on the bottom, which make regular rinsing (intervals according to the degree of hardness of the water) quick and easy to perform. See also: https://youtu.be/fPP_EGs2Hms
If we increase the vapour input temperature significantly above 100°C, boxes made of polypropylene are quickly at their limit, a brittle or material softening in the ePP would result. Other materials are needed from this. We opted for a 3-layer structure, the middle layer of which is made of high-temperature foam, which is enclosed on both sides by plates that are temperature-resistant, scratch-resistant, mechanically highly resilient and free of plasticizers.
c. Optimization of the prototypes:
The objective is a process that heats up the stalk surfaces to a minimum of 95°C to a maximum of 97°C within a short exposure time, in order to discharge the enthalpy energy on the pathogenic germs on the stalk without causing further heat damage. These would reduce the need for chewing and thus eating times – see above! Different outdoor and hay temperatures are compensated for over the running time. This requires a vapour input temperature well above 100°C, but this must be limited upwards so that the vapour still condenses on the pathogenic germs.
For this purpose, we control a steam input temperature of up to 110°C in the coordination of the steam generator, the steam feed and the box and finish the process as soon as all stem surfaces reach max. 98°C. The user can adjust the steam supply exactly to the outside temperature by means of a runtime clock, thereby ensuring that no heat damage occurs. A further prerequisite is that the filling takes place according to the specifications. The quantity of the good is limited, the hay needs to be loosened and must be compacted only moderately to ensure that all surfaces of the good are covered by stream.
Horses don´t cough, a coughing horse is sick. Here we generate a processing of the basic food for patients suffering from severe pulmonary illnesses and thus also asume responsibility for the patients. We must therefore ensure that there is no avoidable on the digestive tract. Pathogenic foreign proteins are further denatured in the horse´s stomach due to the pH value, a positive effect with regard to the microbiome in the colon*. But before they are in contact with the mucous membranes of the mouth and the esophagus.
From this, the process is oriented towards maximum energy release on the previous adhesions. The energy released by steam during condensation consists of heat energy and 4-fold enthalpy energy.**
The objective is therefore:
Limited temperature effect to avoid heat damage with maximum development of enthalpy energy on the pathogenic dust on the surfaces. The final steam input temperature will be determined in practical operation to ensure the requirements above.
Water (at 15 °C) has a specific water capacity of 4184 J/(kg·K), heat of evaporation of 2257 kJ/kg =>
to heat up 3.5 kg water from 15 to 100 °C requires 4184 J/(kg·K) * 3.5 * 85 K = 1244.74 kJ;
to transfer the same amount of water to steam requires 2257 kJ/kg * 3.5 kg = 7899.5 kJ;
to heat up the same amount of steam by 20 °C requires 1870 J/(kg·K) * 3.5 kg * 20 K = 130,9 kJ;
water vapor (at 100 °C) has a specific heat capacity of 1870 J/(kg·K) which complies an energy uptake of 0.52 Wh/kg/K or 31.2 Wm/kg/K.
To be continued !